28 mai 2008

Schizophrenia may be a necessary consequence of literacy.


Hieronymus Bosch , Rechter Innenflügel, 1504.


Meyer stated that depressive mood disorders were individualized ‘‘reactions’’:

The conditions which we meet in psychopathology are more or less abnormal reaction types, which we want to learn to distinguish from one another, trace to the situation or condition under which they arise, and study for their modifiability.

Meyer’s formulations were adopted in the concept of ‘‘reactions’’ that became the basis for the American Psychiatric Association classification of psychiatric disorders (Table 1.1) in DSM-I (1952) and the revision of DSM-II (1968).

The concepts of Freud or Meyer, or those of the adherents to their philosophies, would not have been so widely accepted had there been a competing biological modelof psychiatric illness or eVective treatments for psychiatric disorders. Neuroscience technologies and laboratory procedures were primitive and no somatic treatment was established. The introduction of malarial fevers (1917), insulin coma (1933), convulsive therapy (1934), and leucotomy (1935) challenged the psychodynamic model. The success of these treatments in quickly relieving the most severe psychiatric illnesses changed clinical psychiatric practice and once again directed attention to thebrain as central to psychiatric disorders.36 A new therapeutic optimism improved the tenor of psychiatric institutions.


DISORDERS OF PSYCHOGENIC ORIGIN OR WITHOUT CLEARLY DEFINED PHYSICAL CAUSE OR STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN THE BRAIN

Psychotic disorders
Disorder due to disturbance of metabolism, growth, nutrition, or endocrine function
Involutional psychotic reaction
Disorders of psychogenic origin or without clearly defined tangible cause or structural
change
Avective reactions
Manic-depressive reaction, manic type
Manic-depressive reaction, depressive type
Manic-depressive reaction, other
Psychotic depressive reaction
Schizophrenic reactions
Schizophrenic reaction, schizoaVective type
Psychoneurotic disorders
Disorders of psychogenic origin or without clearly defined tangible cause or
structural change
Psychoneurotic reactions
Anxiety reaction
Depressive reaction

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